torsdag, augusti 31, 2006

Ghairat = Mod

Skapade den här blogen för att jag skall kunna se till att samla mod inför de uppgifter jag inte har kunnat genomföra. Ett sätt att förändra mitt liv till det bättre. Jag kommer inte att skriva stora utsagor utan hålla mig kort till det mer vesäntliga.
Ni kanske undrar vad Ghairat betyder? Ghairat är detsamma som Mod översatt från Afghanska. Ghairat är en del av det som heter Pashtonwali, ett hederskodex som Afghaner följer än idag. Här är lite mer på engelska:


Ghairat means zeal. To keep on one's own and his tribe's prestige one has to be zealous, couraeous and somewhat headless.

The one who is not zealous and courageous may come under the chapawal of others.

Ghairat is a part of Namus and it is said that if one has no Ghairat he cannot keep his Namus. Calling one beghairat (unzealous) is shkanza (an insult). Nobody has the right to call anther one beghairat. Any one so insulting another one brings upon himself the liability to pay sharam.

Ghairat does not only concern men, women also must have Ghairat. Ghairat is often tinged with fanaticism. It helps to preserve the tribalsystem. If a Pathan's sister becomes tora i. e charged with illegal sexual relation, he must kill her as well as her seducer.
Ghani khan has beautfully drown the following skectch of his trait of Pathan, throwing light on his Ghairat or Pakhto.

"A Pathan will shoot the seducer of his sister and walk porudly to the British-made gallows for it. "hero", shout the Pathans", "muderer", says the juge. That is why muders are rare and elopements seldom heard of in tribal areas, for the risk is great and price heavy. The secret of about 80 million people, living without law courts, policemen, juges, hangmen and still enjoying peace and tranquillity unparalleled in the world, is easy to understant. And thus the system takes care of crimes by it self"

With regard to adultery Mr. Khan's logic is strange which is reprouduced as follows for the general intrest.

"But there is another point. The Pathan has no hospital of docters. And it is established that the most horrible diseases are given by men to women and women to men. syphilis, for example. The Pathan knew no cure for it , so he took the most dastic preventive measure. Death to him who dares to risk the health of his tribe. It is teachery and sabotage, which you also punish with death. The knot os the same though the thread is different".
Källa: Watan Afghanistan

Här är en annan formulering gällande Ghairat:

Ghairat (Honor)

Ghairat, protection, or defense of honor, is considered by the wise a great quality, a chivalry which is found as a rule in rare souls. Man regardless of this sense is no better than a domestic animal, a dog or a cat. When their master does not want them he can scold them, drive them away, and they can come again, wagging their tails, for there is no sense of pride to be hurt in them. They only feel the discomfort of having to move from a comfortable place and they could also feel their master's displeasure, but there is no soreness about it. In man the sense of honor is developed; with his evolution it develops more. It is not only necessary that man should be humble, but it is also necessary that man must be proud. Pride is the sign of evolution, honor comes out of pride. If there were no pride nor honor, virtue would not exist.

Very often people confuse Ghairat, this sense of honor, with conceit, sometimes with jealousy; but even the spirit of jealousy, which stands to defend one's honor, can be no other than virtue. People call it conceit, but they do not know the meaning of honor, that in the sense of honor there is a divine spark hidden; for it is the perfection of honor which is the Logos, the Ego, Whom the Sufis call Kibriyy .

No doubt when this sense of honor is developed without wisdom a person might become foolishly sensitive, and not only defend his honor but die for nothing, in illusion, just as the story of Othello suggests. For a man whose sense is developed in Ghairat, his honor is not only in his person, but in his friend, in his beloved, in his mother, sister, or wife, in someone whom he respects, or whom he loves, or with whom he connects himself. This sense of Ghairat has its lights and shades in dealing with friends, in give and take, and very often people prefer death to dishonor, and from a finer point of view they have reason on their side. Those who are trying to their surroundings in life, who are a burden to their relatives, a trouble to their friends, an annoyance to their acquaintances, a disgust to strangers, are the ones who are lacking in this sense. This shows that the sense of Ghairat when developed makes one's life more harmonious, for an honorable man minds his own business and keeps himself out of the way, troubles others less, even if he has to suffer more trouble for it.

There is a story which tells that four persons were arrested for the same crime and were taken before a wise king to be judged. He saw the first person and said, "Hang him." He saw the next person and sentenced him for the whole life. He saw the third person and said, "He must be sent out of the country." He saw the fourth person and said, "I could never have expected you to do such a crime." The first three underwent their punishments, but this last one went home and the next morning he was found dead; that one word of the king was worse than death to him.

Ghairat is a sign of noble birth, whatever condition man may be in. He may be in rags, yet this spirit of Ghairat will shine out through all conditions, proving him to be noble. Humility has its place, pride has its place in life. In the place of pride, humility cannot be fitted. Once the Nizam of Hyderabad was walking in the country, and a knight happened to see a thorn stuck in his shoe. He rushed, before the attendant had seen it, and took out that thorn from the king's shoe. The king looked back and said, "Were there no attendants present? It was for them, not for you," said the king, "and since you have taken this work, you can no longer continue to be my knight. Please retire." It is the sense of honor expected by his surroundings that makes a king a true king.

For a Sufi the sense of honor is not for his personality, he does not give his person a greater place than dust and the central theme of his life is simplicity and his moral is humility. Yet remember that the Sufi breathes the breath of God, so he is conscious of the honor of God. His pride is greater, therefore, than the pride of every man. It is in the intoxication of this pride that he proves to be God-conscious.
Källa: Hazrat Inayat Khan